We are using the last Proven Technology!
At the Montreal Neurotherapy Center, we offer an extensive array of assessments and therapies including Neurofeedback , Biofeedback and Traditional Psychotherapy.
See All Our Information on the Technology Used at the Montreal Neurotherapy Center
Quantitative Electroencephalogram (qEEG)
Quantitative Electroencephalogram (qEEG)
What is Quantitative Electroencephalogram (qEEG)?
A QEEG is an assessment tool to evaluate a person's brainwaves and determine to what extent the brainwave patterns differ from normal.
Recent research shows that certain dysfunctions, such as ADHD, Schizophrenia, OCD, Depression, Specific Learning Disabilities, and others are associated with specific patterns in spontaneous and evoked electrical potentials, recorded from the head by multiple surface electrodes, and that these spontaneous potentials and especially the evoked electric potentials provide reliable brain markers of the brain function and dysfunction.
Measured data of spontaneous and evoked electrical potentials can be compared with data from a normative database, thus helping the clinicians confirm the diagnosis and establish a personalized treatment plan.
The qEEG ProcedureTo perform a QEEG mapping procedure, electrodes, also known as sensors, are typically positioned on the client’s scalp at 32 standardized locations designated by the International 10-20 System (see below). This is usually accomplished by placing a special tight lycra cap, much like a bathing cap, on the client’s head. This cap has all the electrodes already attached in their proper position and is then connected to a differential amplifier and computer with a special cable. The electrodes in the cap make contact with the skin of the scalp by means of a special gel that reduces the resistance between the electrode and the skin. The electrodes pickup the very faint electrical signals of the brain that pass through the skull and scalp and pass these on to a differential amplifier that may amplify the signal a million times or more and convert the analog signal to a digital signal before passing it on to the computer.
Understanding the numbers and graphicsThe numbers generated are Z scores which is a metric which represents how normal or abnormal a score is in comparison to the Neuroguide Database.
This Z Scores test result graphic represent either the traditional eeg bands (e.g. Delta 1-4 Hz.; Theta 4-7 Hz.; Alpha 8-12 Hz., Beta 12-25 Hz, etc.) or for specific single Hz to enable increased precision.
LEGEND of the HEADS Z SCORES GRAPHICS
- The heads use colors to represent the Z scores (Brain Activity) at 19 brain regions, with the nose on the top.
- In the color scale, grey represents scores that are normal (+/- 1 Z score).
- The dots on the head are electrode sites (e.g. the top two being prefrontal sites)
See a combination of tables and graphics of Z scores below.
ADHD Child’s EEG (8yrs old)Here is an example of three seconds of EEG recorded at 19 sites which shows the brain making normal brainwaves to start but then shifts into a dysregulated state where it makes the larger, slower brainwaves (theta). This dysregulated state is likely occurring when this ADHD child is inattentive.
When this child’s recorded brainwaves are averaged and compared to a database we find that he is making more theta activity in the frontal and prefrontal sites is greater than 97% of children his age. This information can be represented in graphs as seen below.
Same ADHD child’s EEG represented graphically:
We can see his excessive theta activity in the graph below:
Adult with Generalized Anxiety Disorder and acquired brain injuryAn overanxious woman who banged the back of her head has a different looking brainmap, showing the excessive delta and theta in the back of her head, in addition to the excessive alpha everywhere.
Adult with Obsessive Compulsive DisorderAn adult suffering with severe Obsessive Compulsive Disorder has a QEEG which shows very excessive fast wave activity, a common pattern in OCD:
Adolescent with Seizure DisorderAn adolescent with a severe seizure disorder (5x/week) had this QEEG before and after treatment:
After a course of Neurofeedback, you can see he had a much improved QEEG (and only one seizure in 3 months).
— Notice the significant reduction of Delta and Theta activity.
Facts about QEEG human brain mapping
• Brainmaps provide a great deal of additional information in a variety of tables and graphs. In addition to measures of the power of the EEG at various speeds, the Connectivity measures give information about but about how well one part of the brain is communicating with another part of the brain. This adolescent with ADHD and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder has difficulties with effective communication between various prefrontal and frontal lobe sites.
Connectivity: A measure of how the various parts of the brain communicate with each other
• The QEEG human brain mapping procedure is very relevant because it provides more information than the typical electroencephalogram (EEG). By having a QEEG done, the brain activity can be compared to a wide database of other "normal brains," helping to determine which, if any, of the brain functions is actually abnormal. QEEG can be helpful in determining whether a person's symptoms are associated with specific brain dysfunctions .This valuable information can guide treatment planning . Repeated QEEG assessments can also be used to monitor treatment progress by showing changes in brain functioning as treatment progresses and symptoms change.
EEG recording is non noninvasive and a safe painless procedure
Neurofeedback - Biofeedback
What is Neurofeedback?EEG Neurofeedback is a form of Biofeedback that uses real-time digital technology to measure electrical activity of the brain (EEG) and present this information in a form that enables the individual to perceive changes in the state of the brain and learn to modify abnormal EEG patterns.
Neurofeedback TreatmentTo rewire the brain, we make use of Neurofeedback Therapy. This treatment stimulates metabolism and blood flow, strengthens dendritic connections as well as the functioning of neurotransmitters, which accounts for improvement in the patient’s ability to carry out cognitive tasks successfully.
Treatment with EEG Neurofeedback is based on the theory that once individuals understand their brain activity and learn to manipulate their own brain waves, they will be able to continue to do so, long after the therapy has ended. Some studies have followed patients for as long as 10 years after being treated with EEG Neurofeedback and have shown no significant loss of treatment gains.
Neurofeedback Session Procedure
A non-invasive painless Procedure
- We apply electrodes to the scalp to listen in on brainwave activity.
- We process the signal by computer, and we extract information about certain key brainwave frequencies. (All brainwave frequencies are equal, but some are more equal than others....)
- We show the ebb and flow of this activity back to the person, who attempts to change the activity level. Some frequencies we wish to promote. Others we wish to diminish.
- We present this information to the person in the form of a video game. The person is effectively playing the video game with his or her brain. Eventually the brainwave activity is "shaped" toward more desirable, more regulated performance. The frequencies we target, and the specific locations on the scalp where we listen in on the brain, are specific to the conditions we are trying to address, and specific to the individual.
What is Biofeedback?Biofeedback is a type of non-invasive treatment that provides real-time information on brain or body functions. It uses computer technology to record physiological activity that is normally outside conscious awareness (e.g. heart rate, breathing rate, and muscle tension) and to display this activity to the person being recorded.
The goal of biofeedback is to teach people to build awareness of patterns of physiological stress and to voluntarily control their physiological activity.
Heart Rate Variability training(For Stress, Emotional Reactivity and Cognitive Enhancement)
Research has shown that the degree of 'speed-up' and 'slow-down' of the heart - known as Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has profound implications for health and well being. It has been shown that HRV can be modified through Biofeedback training. A number of medical and psychological conditions are now being treated by HRV training, including anxiety, excessive anger, cardiac condition, asthma, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pain, chronic fatigue syndrome, and , chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD).
Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback is a new technique for training people to change the variability and dominant rhythms in their heart activity. The heart is a bio-electrical pump beating at an ever changing rate, and this change or variability, is adaptive and is necessary in order to maintain a healthy heart. If you suffer mental or emotional stress, or become depressed, this variability decreases and the heart does not function so well. On the other hand, high HRV is associated with better health and survival from illness.
Recent research has now shown it is possible to increase your own HRV using biofeedback. So, if you are frequently stressed and perhaps suffer from one or more of the stress-related illnesses, you can learn to increase your HRV and be on your way to a healthier mind and body. Initial case reports have shown success with HRV biofeedback in reducing anger and anxiety disorders, asthma, cardiovascular disorders, chronic fatigue, chronic pain, essential hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome -228600319405 (Lehrer et al, 2004; Lehrer et al, 2006; Hassett et al, 2007).
Thermal Biofeedback training(For Stress Management, Headache Prevention, Insomnia and Attention Regulation)
Chronic stress is associated with hypertension (high blood pressure), migraines, tension headaches, digestive problems, anxiety, and mood disorders. Under stress, blood vessels in hands and feet constrict and core muscles constrict to keep organs tight and deactivated in preparation for a response to a stressor. As a result, there is less peripheral blood flow, which is typically associated with lower skin temperature. So, skin temperature is an index of stress-related arousal.
A feedback thermometer, usually attached to a finger, detects skin temperature in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit. Awareness of this arousal can help reduce stress and facilitate relaxation practice.
Galvanic Stress Response training(For emotional reactivity and stress management; GSR)
Electrodermograph (EDG) provides one of the fastest and most sensitive measures of stress.
The activity of sweat glands in the palms of the hands precisely reflects a person's level of emotional arousal. Mental agitation is expressed almost immediately (within .5 to 3 seconds) in the amount of sweat on the surface of the skin.
This can be detected by measuring the conductance of electricity across the hands hands or fingers (the electric current cannot be felt by the user). Skin Conductance Level (SCL) also known as Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) is measured in kΩ (thousands of ohms). This technology has been used for decades as the basis for the classic "Lie detector" test. SCL is also widely used to increase people's awareness of their emotions and for the reduction of stress, anxiety, high blood pressure, and insomnia.
Surface Electromyography (sEMG) Biofeedback
Muscle tension is at the root of several stress-related problems including headaches, back and neck pain, temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD). It is also an important symptom of anxiety, worry, stress, and mood problems.
With EMG, electrodes on the skin pick up activity from underlying muscles (measured in microvolts) and provide feedback about the state of the muscles. You can uses this information to increase awareness and reduce tension in those muscles.
Live Z Score training in Functional ConnectivityThe concept of Z score biofeedback (also known as Z-Score Neurofeedback) in order to identify brain regions that are de-regulated and depart from expected values in real-time.
TreatmentTreatment with EEG neurofeedback is based on the theory that once individuals understand their brain activity and learn to manipulate their own brain waves, they will be able to continue to do so, long after the therapy has ended. Some studies have followed patients for as long as 10 years after being treated with EEG neurofeedback and have shown no significant loss of treatment gains.
Method:We apply electrodes to the scalp to listen in on brainwave activity. We process the signal by computer, and we extract information about certain key brainwave frequencies.We show the ebb and flow of this activity back to the person, who attempts to change the activity level. Some frequencies we wish to promote. Others we wish to diminish.
We present this information to the person in the form of a video game. The person is effectively playing the video game with his or her brain. Eventually the brainwave activity is “shaped” toward more desirable, more regulated performance. The frequencies we target, and the specific locations on the scalp where we listen in on the brain, are specific to the conditions we are trying to address, and specific to the individual.
We also use 19 Channel Neurofeedback
Unlike our normal one or two electrode neurofeedback training protocols, where we mainly concentrate on lowering the power in one specific region of the brain, 19 channel neurofeedback (also know as Z-score neurofeedback or “full cap” neurofeedback) can train up to 5700 variables at one time.
19 channel neurofeedback trains your brain using z-scores. This can be thought of as “real time” training where your brain is getting trained to be within normal limits as defined by a normative database in real time.
19 channel neurofeedback can train EEG coherence, phase delay, amplitude and power asymmetry, phase reset, phase lock and phase shift duration.
• Learn More by watching this Video
To learn More, Visit the Web site The Montreal Neurofeedback Center
READ more —> http://www.bmedreport.com/archives/6938
Trancranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)
What is rTMS?Transcranial Magnetic stimulation rTMS is a procedure in which cerebral electrical activity is influenced by a pulsed magnetic field. The magnetic field is generated by passing brief current pulses through a figure 8 coil. This coil is encased in plastic and is held close to the scalp so that the magnetic field can be focused onto specific areas of the cortex, or surface, of the brain.
rTMS therapy was approved by Health Canada for clinical delivery in Canada.
APPROVED by Health Canada
The magnetic field that is generated in rTMS can penetrate the scalp and skull safely and painlessly to induce a current in specific regions of the brain. It is termed repetitive TMS, or rTMS, because the magnetic stimulation is delivered at regular intervals.
Many aspects of rTMS, referred to as stimulation parameters, can be changed. The ability to change parameters while directly targeting specific brain areas suggests that rTMS has valuable therapeutic potential.
This means that the delivery of rTMS therapy may be customized for each patient. It also suggests that rTMS may be used to elicit certain desired effects in the brain (i.e. excitatory or inhibitory effects) that have shown promise for treating various conditions or illnesses such as depression. rTMS may be used to elicit certain desired effects in the brain (i.e. excitatory or inhibitory effects) that have shown promise for treating various conditions or illnesses such as:
- Post concussive symptoms
- Neuropathic pain
DepressionIn treating depression, rTMS therapy targets the area in the left cerebral hemisphere just a few inches above the temple and beneath the skull. This area is called the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC, see photo). The L-DLPFC is readily accessible to the magnetic field and is highly interconnected with limbic structures, which play a dominant role in mood modulation and major depression.
rTMS is used to treat depression by inducing a current in the L-DLPFC with stimulation by a magnetic field. The stimulations are short but intense, lasting less than a millisecond. The penetration itself holds little energy. Several studies have suggested that rTMS regulates beta adreno-receptors and increases dopamine and serotonin levels.
Some remote brain structures are also believed to be linked to depression. rTMS may alter activity in these structures not directly accessible to the rTMS coil by focal cortical stimulation. The indirect stimulation occurs via trans-synaptic effects. This means that the accessible areas of the brain, such as the L-DLPFC described above, are first directly stimulated by the magnetic field. This direct stimulation may in turn cause the inaccessible areas of the brain to be stimulated.
The human brain is a natural electrical organ that functions by transmitting electrical signals from one nerve cell to another. Brain imaging techniques demonstrate that individuals suffering from depression often display insufficient levels of glucose metabolism, lower blood flow in the L-DLPFC and increased activity in the limbic system.
rTMS acts on this process by regulating the flow of interactions between neurons that will appropriately increase or decrease the desired regions to relieve the depression.
Acute treatment for depression consists of 20-30 rTMS sessions, over 4-6 consecutive weeks (excluding weekends).
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)
What is Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS)Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), is a non-invasive, painless brain stimulation treatment that uses direct electrical currents to stimulate specific parts of the brain.
The Therapy works by delivering a low intensity electrical current to part of the brain responsible for abnormal pain sensation. This constant, low intensity current is passed through two electrodes placed over the head which modulates neuronal activity.
The treatment is not surgical and drug free.For patients this means less complications and less risk. If you are suffering from Fibromyalgia or Migraine you may benefit from this new technology.
• There are two types of stimulation with tDCS: anodal and cathodal stimulation.
Anodal stimulation acts to excite neuronal activity while cathodal stimulation inhibits or reduces neuronal activity.
About the tDCS System we use at the Montreal Neurotherapy Center!
Now available in Canada as an in-office treatment.
PainX™ tDCS System is a non-invasive medical device used at the Montreal Neurotherapy Center that stimulates the brain via an electrode on the hair. It is a safe and effective in-office treatment for fibromyalgia or migraine.
APPROVED by HEALTH CANADA
Learn More on that device by — More Information here —
Are Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Effective?
Recent studies support a therapeutic potential of tDCS in patients with chronic neuropathic pain, Parkinson, stroke recovery, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), traumatic spinal cord injury, depression and other illnesses. tDCS has not been approved by the FDA for any therapeutic applications, thus treatments are considered an “off-label” application.
Although tDCS is still an experimental form of brain stimulation, it potentially has several advantages over other brain stimulation techniques. It is cheap, non-invasive, painless and safe. It is also easy to administer and the equipment is easily portable.
Several studies suggest it may be a valuable tool for the treatment of neuropsychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, Parkinson’s disease, and chronic pain. Research has also demonstrated cognitive improvement in some patients undergoing tDCS. Currently, tDCS is not an FDA-approved treatment.
• Watch this Video from PBS Newshour On the Soterix Medical tDCS device features
How a gentle electrical jolt can focus the sluggish mind
What is Re-Timer?
WORN LIKE A PAIR OF GLASSES,
RE-TIMER IS UNIVERSITY-DEVELOPED AND SCIENTIFICALLY PROVEN TO
RE-TIME YOUR SLEEP PATTERN.
25 years university researchRe-Timer is University developed and scientifically proven to re-time your body clock. Since 1987, world-renowned sleep psychologists at Flinders University have studied the effects of light on the human body clock. Eleven patents and studies are evidence of the performance of the Re-Timer technology.
Re-Timer is a drug free solution and the 100% UV-free way to receive light when it’s convenient for you.
Just 30 minutes a dayRe-Timer is worn while you are awake either in the morning or evening, depending on how you wish to change your sleep. A recommended schedule to change your sleep is typically 7 days for 30 minutes each day. To beat Long Winters, Re-Timer can be worn daily throughout winter or just used on the darker colder days when you wish to boost your energy and mood.
recoveriX Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) System
recoveriX Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) System
What is recoveriX?recoveriX is an innovative and unique Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) System, which was developed especially for the rehabilitation of stroke patients. It should help the patient regain the function of the upper and lower extremities, in addition to standard therapy. It can be used in the acute, sub-acute, or chronic state.
What is a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) System?A BCI is a device that can allow communication or device control without movement. Instead, a BCI bypasses the brain’s normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles, and detects mental activity through direct measures of brain activity (Usually the EEG (Electroencephalogram)).
Mrs. Savin suddenly suffered a stroke. It came without warning, and left her right arm completely paralyzed. After participating in recoveriX-therapy, she was soon able to move her right arm again.
Watch the interview (English Subtitle):
recoveriX uses state-of-the-art neurotechnology that leads to success even in the case of chronic disorders.
This video show a typical session with the recoveriX Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) System
The Science:Scientific Articles & Research (Acrobat PDF documents):
• International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation by Cho et al., Int J Phys Med Rehabil 2017, 5:4
• Guger Technologies OG - HCII 2016 - paper 1826 - saba et al PAS for stroke-final
How does recoveriX work?
• A stroke might inhibit your ability to move, but maybe not your ability to imagine movement!
• Imagine a hand or a foot movement
• The imagination triggers nearly the same activity in the brain as a real hand or foot movement
This is what exactly we can use for our therapy!
A combination of 3 feedback-systems improve your chances for successful therapy.
1— Mental imagination
Imagine a hand or a foot movement.
Our EEG cap can measure your brainwaves, which reflect your motor imagery.
Motor imagery produces brain activity similar to an active movement.
The recoveriX system analyses this brain activity and can determine whether the motor imagery was correct.
2— Visual Feedback
The simulation on the screen makes your movement imagination visible.
You sit in front of a screen, where you can see the hands or feet of an “avatar” (virtual person).
This should give you the feeling of watching your own movements in front of a mirror.
If the system identifies a correct imagination of the movement (such as a right hand movement), the avatar moves the right hand.
So you can control the avatar’s movements with your mind, which should help you relearn to control your own movements.
3— Electrical Stimulation
The imagined movement leads to electrical stimulation of the affected muscles – without pain!
For this stimulation, two electrodes are placed (for example) on the dorsiflexors of the wrist.
If the system recognizes a correct motor imagery, the muscles get electrically stimulated, causing a real movement.
This should help you re-learn how to initiate movement, and thus make movement possible again
• These three rehabilitation components help the brain reorganize to be able to perform movements again independently.
• At the end of every therapy session, the system shows you a complete evaluation of your training success, and delivers a clear representation of your improvements.
For the patient:Do not hesitate to Contact Us about this new tool use at the Montreal Neurotherapy Center and see how we can help you regain a good quality of life!
For the professional:Montreal Neurotherapy was so impress with the results of this new technology that we became an official Distributor of the After Stroke Rehabilitation System recoveriX.
Do not hesitate to contact Us for information.
Franchise Documents (PDF) :
• recoveryX Franchise Document
Passive Infrared Hemoencephalography (pIR HEG)
Passive Infrared Hemoencephalography (pIR HEG)
What is Passive Infrared (pIR HEG)?PASSIVE INFRARED HEMOENCEPHALOGRAPHY refers to a variant of that technique. It utilizes physiological signals from the brain, but these signals are based on thermal output, arising from changes in blood flow dynamics and cellular metabolism.
How Does pIR-HEG Neurofeedback Work?Blood flow is increased at the prefrontal cortex with attentional brain activity. By achieving focused attention with a relaxed body and mind, the neurofeedback participant is able manipulate the computer sensor output that is measuring blood flow. The trainee learns how to increase activation of important brain activities and eventually can retrain the brain to perform better.
The Passive Infrared (pIR HEG) process is simple to learn and often enjoyable.
Magnetic Resonance Therapy with the Magnesphere™
Magnetic Resonance Therapy by Magneceutical
Magnetic Resonance Therapy with the Magnesphere™
Developed by Magneceutical Health, the Magnesphere™ is a Magnetic Resonance Therapy system that balances your body’s Autonomic Nervous System with extremely low level magnetic fields found naturally in the body. This FDA-approved claim of “Enhancing Relaxation” helps reduce the symptoms associated with chronic stress, including: pain, inflammation, digestive issues, low energy level and poor sleep.
See the Science behind the Magnesphere™
Download the in-depth document “The Relaxation Response”
By Dr. Jerry Jacobson PhD, DMD, IOM
How the Magnesphere™ WorksThe precise mechanism of operation can be explained by well-accepted principles of Quantum physics and biology, and is comprised of four basic elements:
The Magnesphere use the basic physics principle of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance by which a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device applies an external magnetic field to alter molecular or atomic targets in the body to achieve its results. The MRI device alters the molecules in the body with a very powerful magnet, in such a dramatic manner as to be able to obtain an image.
In contrast, the Magnesphere™ device utilizes the same principle, albeit at targeted field strengths of a much lower (physiologic) level.
Chronic Stress: Adversely affects disease states and chronic conditions of many types, leading to an exacerbation of symptoms (typically stiffness, pain, inflammation, energy level, and sleep)
Stimulation of the Vagus Nerve with precise, physiologic magnetic fields produces a balancing effect on the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and its two branches: Sympathetic ("fight or flight") and Parasympathetic ("rest and digest").
See image for a diagram of showing the importance of the Autonomic Nervous System.
By measuring the change in the balance of the ANS, using the biomarker Heart Rate Variability (HRV), we are able to determine which magnetic field(s) are best suited to "enhance feelings of relaxation" and help improve symptoms that have been exacerbated by Chronic Stress.
Explore the possibilities of this therapy!
• Watch this Video about the Magnesphere™ technology
Our Technology General Information• Coming Soon...
Our Technology Videos & Medias
Our Technology Literature & Research
Bibliography on the efficiency of Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) against Depression
• Gross M, Nakamura L, Pascual-Leone A, Fregni F. "Has repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment for depression improved? A systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the recent vs. the earlier rTMS studies." Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2007 Sep; 116(3):165-73. abstract
• O'Reardon JP, Solvason HB, Janicak PG, Sampson S, Isenberg KE, Nahas Z, McDonald WM, Avery D, Fitzgerald PB, Loo C, Demitrack MA, George MS, Sackeim HA. "Efficacy and safety of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the acute treatment of major depression: a multisite randomized controlled trial." Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Dec 1; 62(11):1208-16. abstract
• Janicak PG, O'Reardon JP, Sampson SM, Husain MM, Lisanby SH, Rado JT, Heart KL, Demitrack MA. "Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of major depressive disorder: a comprehensive summary of safety experience from acute exposure, extended exposure, and during reintroduction treatment." J Clin Psychiatry. 2008 Feb; 69(2):222-32. abstract
• Avery DH, Isenberg KE, Sampson SM, Janicak PG, Lisanby SH, Maixner DF, Loo C, Thase ME, Demitrack MA, George MS. "Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the acute treatment of major depressive disorder: clinical response in an open-label extension trial." J Clin Psychiatry. 2008 Mar; 69(3):441-51. abstract
• Lisanby SH, Husain MM, Rosenquist PB, Maixner D, Gutierrez R, Krystal A, Gilmer W, Marangell LB, Aaronson S, Daskalakis ZJ, Canterbury R, Richelson E, Sackeim HA, George MS. "Daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the acute treatment of major depression: clinical predictors of outcome in a multisite, randomized controlled clinical trial." Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009 Jan; 34(2):522-34. abstract
• Janicak PG, Nahas Z, Lisanby SH, Solvason HB, Sampson SM, McDonald WM, Marangell LB, Rosenquist P, McCall WV, Kimball J, O'Reardon JP, Loo C, Husain MH, Krystal A, Gilmer W, Dowd SM, Demitrack MA, Schatzberg AF. "Durability of clinical benefit with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of pharmacoresistant major depression: assessment of relapse during a 6-month, multisite, open-label study." Brain Stimul. 2010 Oct; 3(4):187-99. abstract
• George MS, Lisanby SH, Avery D, McDonald WM, Durkalski V, Pavlicova M, Anderson B, Nahas Z, Bulow P, Zarkowski P, Holtzheimer PE 3rd, Schwartz T, Sackeim HA. "Daily left prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy for major depressive disorder: a sham-controlled randomized trial. " Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 May;67(5):507-16. abstract
• Slotema CW, Blom JD, Hoek HW, Sommer IE. "Should we expand the toolbox of psychiatric treatment methods to include Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)? A meta-analysis of the efficacy of rTMS in psychiatric disorders. " J Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Jul;71(7):873-84. abstract
• Carpenter LL, Janicak PG, Aaronson ST, Boyadjis T, Brock DG, Cook IA, Dunner DL, Lanocha K, Solvason HB, Demitrack MA. "Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for major depression: a multisite, naturalistic, observational study of acute treatment outcomes in clinical practice." Depress Anxiety. 2012 Jul;29(7):587-96. abstract
• Janicak PG, Dunner DL, Aaronson ST, Carpenter LL, Boyadjis TA, Brock DG, Cook IA, Lanocha K, Solvason HB, Bonneh-Barkay D, Demitrack MA. "Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for major depression: a multisite, naturalistic, observational study of quality of life outcome measures in clinical practice." CNS Spectr. 2013 Dec;18(6):322-32. abstract
• Leuchter AF, Cook IA, Jin Y, Phillips B. "The relationship between brain oscillatory activity and therapeutic effectiveness of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of major depressive disorder." Front Hum Neurosci. 2013 Feb 26;7:37. abstract
• Cook IA, Espinoza R, Leuchter AF. "Neuromodulation for depression: invasive and noninvasive (deep brain stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, trigeminal nerve stimulation)." Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2014 Jan;25(1):103-16. abstract
PROVEN & APPROVED
“ We Always Use Technologies that are Proven & Approved by the Scientific Community. ”From: The Montreal Neurotherapy Center